4. Laboratory investigations (WP4): fasting plasma glucose, lipids, serum creatinine, serum
liver enzymes, biomarkers (for inflammation, copeptin, etc., see Table 1), urinary spot sample
for microalbuminuria and albumin/creatinine ratio. In addition, faeces samples will be
obtained for determination of secreted factors as well as a genetic screening for evaluation of
the gut bacterial content and composition (microbiota). A biobank will be established in
technical collaboration between Lund University and other partners (Region Skåne,
BBMRI.se). Assessment of leukocyte types and activation in whole blood will be performed
in representative subsets of subjects.
5. Metabolic investigation (WP5): including fasting blood sampling for plasma glucose and
serum lipids (total cholesterol: C, HDL-C, LDL-C and triglycerides, LpLA2, Lp(a), etc.), and
an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; 75 g glucose), with measurements at 0,30,(60) and 120
min of plasma glucose, incretins (GLP-1, GIP), insulin, C-peptide and glucagon.
6. Technical investigations (WP6): arterial stiffness (Sphygmocor ® assessment of pulse wave
velocity, augmentation index, central blood pressure), arteria carotis morphology and
function (Sekoya ® ultrasound device), 24-h ambulatory blood pressure recordings, and
central aortic pressure (24-h Arteriograph ® Central BP). We will perform screening
spirometry and evaluation of endothelial function (by EndoPat ®).Measurement of Advanced
Glycation End Products (AGE) will be conducted transdermally by use of an AGE-Reader®.
In addition, other investigations are optional and depending on funding, such as brain
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as echocardiography, and retinal artery imaging